Masyarakat Sadar Bencana: Pembelajaran dari Karo, Banjarnegara, dan Jepang

Rohani Budi Prihatin

Abstract

Geographical location, archipelago, large population, and tropical climate have placed Indonesia as a high disaster risk area. How Indonesia anticipates and handles natural disasters is a very important problem to be studied, especially related to the process of public awareness to disasters from these two case studies, namely the Mount Sinabung Eruption in Karo, North Sumatra and landslides in Banjarnegara, Central Java. By conducting in-depth interviews, field observations, and literature studies, this study found the fact that the strategies used in managing natural disasters in Indonesia, especially in terms of disaster awareness, had been reactive. Even though most people are still alive and looking for life in the midst of high-risk areas, in fact they are not really prepared for disaster. In the case of the Sinabung disaster there seems to be no tradition of Karo community preparedness in the face of disasters after a long time since Mount Sinabung was inactive. Conversely, in the case of disasters in Banjarnegara, this awareness has grown even though it has not been as ideal as Japanese society. This proves that most victims still use fatalistic views in facing disasters. Most victims are not afraid to return to their original place which was once a disaster area. This lack of awareness is influenced by the perspective of most people who accept what nature has given and see natural disasters as an inevitable fate. 



 Lokasi geografis, wilayah kepulauan, populasi yang besar, dan kondisi iklim tropis telah menempatkan Indonesia sebagai daerah dengan risiko bencana tinggi. Bagaimana Indonesia mengantisipasi dan menangani bencana-bencana alam tersebut menjadi masalah yang sangat penting untuk dipelajari, khususnya terkait dengan proses kesadaran masyarakat terhadap bencana dari dua studi kasus Letusan Gunung Sinabung di Karo, Sumatera Utara dan tanah longsor di Banjarnegara, Jawa Tengah. Melalui penelitian kualitatif yang dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi lapangan, dan studi pustaka, penelitian ini menemukan fakta bahwa strategi yang digunakan dalam mengelola bencana alam di Indonesia, terutama dari sisi sadar bencana, selama ini masih bersifat reaktif. Meskipun kebanyakan orang masih hidup dan mencari kehidupan di tengah-tengah daerah berisiko tinggi, sebenarnya mereka tidak benar-benar siap menghadapi bencana. Pada kasus bencana Sinabung tampak tidak ada tradisi kesiapsiagaan masyarakat Karo dalam menghadapi bencana setelah sekian lama Gunung Sinabung tidak aktif. Sebaliknya, pada kasus bencana di Banjarnegara, telah tumbuh kesadaran tersebut walau belum seideal pada masyarakat Jepang. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa kebanyakan korban masih menggunakan pandangan fatalistik dalam menghadapi bencana. Mayoritas korban tidak takut untuk kembali ke tempat asal mereka yang dulunya merupakan daerah bencana. Kurangnya kesadaran ini dipengaruhi oleh perspektif masyarakat kebanyakan yang menerima apa yang diberikan alam dan melihat kejadian bencana alam sebagai takdir yang tak terelakkan. 

Keywords

: Disaster Awareness Society; Adaptation; Capacity Building, Sinabung, Banjarnegara

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22212/aspirasi.v9i2.1106

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