Dampak Penerapan Rencana Aksi APEC pada Lima Indikator Ease of Doing Business terhadap Pendirian Usaha di Kawasan APEC

Elsya Yunita, Nining Indroyono Soesilo
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Inefficient business regulation may hinder the growth of business activities. In 2009, APEC established the APEC Ease of Doing Business Action Plan (the APEC Action Plan) to promote business regulatory reforms in its member region. There are five indicators of ease of doing business identified as reform priorities in the APEC Action Plan, namely starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting credit, trading across borders, and enforcing contracts. This study tested the impact of regulatory reforms on these five

indicators on firm creation in the APEC region in the presence of the APEC Action Plan as an intervention. Using a combination of Fixed Effects Model, Random-Effects Model, and Random Effects-instrumental variables on the panel data of 15 APEC member economies over the 2006-2018 period, results show a better score improvement in the five indicators of ease of doing business after implementing the APEC Action Plan. Regulatory reforms on the starting a business indicator have the most significant impact on firm creation in the APEC region. Specifically, the increasing number of firm creations is strongly driven by the decreasing number of days required to obtain a license to start a business. The other four indicators show an insignificant relationship to the firm creation. APEC members are suggested to design policies that focus on providing licensing services to start a business that is easy, cheap, and fast. For example, by implementing “one-stop-shops” services and developing electronic-based services to speed up the licensing process and minimize costs.

Keywords: APEC, ease of doing business, firm creation, regulation, panel data


Regulasi usaha yang tidak efisien dapat menghambat pertumbuhan aktivitas usaha. Pada tahun 2009, APEC menetapkan Rencana Aksi Kemudahan Berusaha APEC (Rencana Aksi APEC) sebagai bentuk intervensi untuk mendorong perbaikan regulasi usaha di kawasan anggotanya. Terdapat lima indikator kemudahan berusaha yang menjadi prioritas perbaikan dalam Rencana Aksi APEC, yaitu memulai usaha, perizinan terkait mendirikan bangunan, akses perkreditan, perdagangan lintas negara, dan penegakan kontrak. Penelitian ini menguji bagaimana dampak perbaikan regulasi usaha pada kelima indikator tersebut terhadap pendirian usaha di kawasan APEC, dalam kondisi adanya intervensi berupa penerapan Rencana Aksi APEC. Menggunakan kombinasi Fixed Effects Model, Random-Effects Model, dan Random Effect-instrumental variable pada data panel 15 ekonomi anggota APEC tahun 2006-2018, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan perbaikan skor pada lima indikator kemudahan berusaha setelah adanya penerapan Rencana Aksi APEC. Perbaikan regulasi pada indikator memulai usaha memiliki pengaruh paling signifikan terhadap pendirian usaha di kawasan APEC, di mana peningkatan jumlah pendirian usaha di kawasan APEC dipengaruhi secara signifikan oleh penurunan jumlah hari yang dibutuhkan untuk mengurus perizinan memulai usaha. Adapun empat indikator kemudahan berusaha lainnya menunjukkan hubungan yang tidak signifikan terhadap pendirian usaha. Dari hasil penelitian, disarankan agar anggota APEC merancang kebijakan yang memfokuskan pada penyediaan layanan perizinan memulai usaha yang mudah, murah dan cepat. Misalnya dengan mengimplementasikan layanan “one-stop shops” serta mengembangkan layanan berbasis elektronik untuk mempercepat proses perizinan dan meminimalkan biaya yang harus dikeluarkan.

Kata kunci: APEC, kemudahan berusaha, pendirian usaha, regulasi, data panel


APEC; ease of doing business; firm creation; regulation; panel data; kemudahan berusaha; pendirian usaha; regulasi; data panel

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