Biaya Intermediasi Keuangan Perbankan Indonesia: Peranan Makroekonomi, Regulasi dan Institusi

davy hendri

Abstract


Meskipun reformasi sektor perbankan sudah digaungkan sejak pasca krisis 1997 dan ditopang oleh  stabilitas makroekonomi dan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang kuat, intermediasi keuangan di Indonesia masih tertinggal di belakang negara-negara transisi lainnya. Hal ini ditandai salah satunya dengan spread suku bunga tetap tinggi daripada negara-negara pada level regional ASEAN. Makalah ini membahas faktor-faktor penentu margin suku bunga di Indonesia dengan menggunakan dataset panel bank yang periode 2004 sampai 2012 yang mencakup sampel 42 bank umum komersial dari keseluruhan bank yang beroperasi. Dengan data perbankan yang mencakup kategori perbankan menurut kepemilikan saham terbesar (BUMN, Asing dan Campuran) dan lingkup pelayanan (Devisa) maka analisis akan lebih bermakna jika dilakukan dengan mengkomparasikan determinan karakteristik khusus (time-variant) masing-masing bank tersebut. Kami menemukan bahwa selain faktor-bank yang spesifik, seperti ukuran bank, likuiditas, dan kekuatan pasar, serta struktur pasar di mana bank beroperasi, maka karakteristik makroekonomi dan insitusi di mana bank beroperasi turut menjelaskan sebagian besar variasi margin. Kesimpulan dari hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ada potensi besar kebijakan yang ditujukan untuk mendorong persaingan perbankan dan memperkuat kerangka kerja institusional yang bertujuan untuk  mengurangi biaya intermediasi sistem perbankan.


Keywords


Net Interest Margins; struktur pasar; makroekonomi; Good governance

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22212/jekp.v7i1.413

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