The Dynamics Beyond Counter Terrorism Measures in the Indo-Pacific [Dinamika di Luar Upaya Melawan Terorisme di Indo Pasifik]

Samti Wira Wibawati, Marina Ika Sari, Yuli Ari Sulistyani

Abstract

The Indo-Pacific is a conceptual idea aimed at enhancing economic connectivity and security among states in the Indo-Pacific region. In line with the high interest from many Indo-Pacific states, security problems like terrorism are of common concerns that need to be addressed. Various existing security cooperation mechanisms have been established to solve this latent problem. However, these mechanisms have not been able to decrease the number of terrorist acts in the region. This study discusses the urgency of terrorism issues in the Indo-Pacific region with the current security cooperation mechanisms. This research uses qualitative method which allows the researchers to describe and explore the observed phenomenon. Using the theory of international cooperation, this research found that it is necessary to recalibrate the existing security cooperation or to focus on making a new and integrated mechanism in the Indo-Pacific region.

Abstrak

Indo-Pasifik adalah ide konseptual yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan konektivitas ekonomi dan keamanan di antara negara-negara yang berada di kawasan Indo-Pasifik. Sejalan dengan banyaknya kepentingan berbagai negara di Indo Pasifik, masalah keamanan seperti terorisme perlu menjadi perhatian bersama. Berbagai mekanisme kerjasama keamanan telah dibentuk untuk menangani masalah laten ini. Namun, mekanisme kerjasama keamanan yang ada belum mampu mengurangi angka tindak terorisme di kawasan. Studi ini membahas tentang urgensi masalah terorisme di kawasan Indo-Pasifik dengan mekanisme kerjasama keamanan yang sudah ada. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dimana para peneliti dapat menggambarkan dan mengeksplorasi fenomena yang diteliti. Dengan menggunakan teori kerjasama internasional, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa perlu untuk mengkalibrasi ulang kerjasama keamanan yang sudah ada atau fokus pada pembuatan mekanisme baru dan terintegrasi di kawasan Indo-Pasifik.

Keywords

Terrorism; International Cooperation; Indo-Pacific; Security; Terorisme, Kerjasama Internasional, Indo-Pasifik, Keamanan.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Acharya, Amitav Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Al-Jazeera. “New Zealand PM: dozens killed in ‘terrorist’ attack on mosques.” Retrieved June 01, 2019. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/03/shooter-situation-zealand-mosque-attack-190315015927391.html.

Anthony, M. C. “Non Traditional Security, Regionalism and The State in Southeast Asia”. In M. C. Anthony, An Introduction to Non-Traditional Security Studies: A Transnational Approach. Singapura: Nanyang Technological University, 2008.

Ariffin, Eijas. “The Asean Post”. Retrieved October 30, 2018. https://theaseanpost.com/article/indonesian-terrorist-attacks-show-terrorism-still-threat-southeast-asia

Association of Southeast Asian Nations, “ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific,” Retrieved September 15, 2019. https://asean.org/asean-outlook-indo-pacific/

Association of Southeast Asian Nations, “ASEAN Political – Security Community,” Retrieved October 3, 2019. https://asean.org/asean-political-security-community/

Association of Southeast Asian Nations, “ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint,” Retrieved October 3, 2019. https://asean.org/wp-content/uploads/images/archive/5187-18.pdf

Bandoro, Bantarto. Indonesia dalam Lingkungan Strategis yang Berubah. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. 2014.

BBC Indonesia. “Gereja Katolik di Filipina Selatan Dibom, Pelaku Disebut Sebagai Pelaku Tak Bertuhan”. Retreived February 14, 2019. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/dunia-47018553

BBC. “Surabaya attacks: Family of five bomb Indonesia police headquarters”. Retrieved October 30, 2018. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44105279

Cannon, Brendon. J and Ash Rossiter. The Indo-Pacific regional dynamics in the 21st century’s new geopolitical center of gravity. Rising Powers Quarterly Volume 3, Issue 2 (2018).

Channel News Asia. “Motorcycle bomb in Southern Thailand market kills 3, more than 20 wounded”. Retrieved October 20, 2018, https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/motorcycle-bomb-in-southern-thailand-market-kills-3-more-than-20-9882730

Firdaus, Randy Ferdi. “Di Singapura, Menhan Ungkap Cara Tangkal Terorisme di Indo-Pasifik”. Retrieved January 15, 2019, https://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/di-singapura-menhan-ungkap-cara-tangkal-terorisme-di-indo-pasifik.html

Habib, A. Hasnan. Strategis dan hubungan internasional. Bandung: Kapita Selekta, 1990.

Hakim, Syaiful. “ASEAN Adopsi Our Eyes dalam Kontra Terorisme”. Retrieved January 12, 2019, https://www.antaranews.com/berita/760146/asean-adopsi-our-eyes-dalam-kontra-terorisme

Holsti, K. J. Politik Internasional: Kerangka untuk Analisis Jilid II Terjemahan M. Tahrir Azhari. Jakarta: Erlangga, 1988.

Institute for Economics and Peace, “Global Terrorism Index Report 2018,” retrieved June 01, 2019, visionofhumanity.org

Jakarta Post. “Two children survive premature bomb explosion in Sidoarjo”. Retreived January 15, 2019. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/05/13/two-children-survive-premature-bomb-explosion-in-sidoarjo.html

Kementerian Luar Negeri Indonesia, “ASEAN-U.S. Dialogue: Indonesia Stressed the Significance of Indo-Pacific Cooperation for Regional Stability and Prosperity”. Retreived February 24, 2019. https://kemlu.go.id/portal/en/ex_berita/2992/asean-us-dialogue-indonesia-stressed-the-significance-of-indo-pacific-cooperation-for-regional-stability-and-prosperity

Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia, “ASEAN Political – Security Society, 7 April 2019, retreived October 3, 2019, https://kemlu.go.id/portal/en/read/121/halaman_list_lainnya/asean-political-security-society

Kementerian Pertahanan. Buku Putih Pertahanan Indonesia 2015. Jakarta: Kementerian Pertahanan Indonesia, 2015.

Martin, Michael F, Rhoda Margesson, and Bruce Vaughn. “The Rohingya Crises in Bangladesh and Burma.” Congressional Research Service Report (2017).

Ministry of External Affairs Government of India. “India-Australia-Japan-U.S Consultations.” Retreived January 22, 2019. https://www.mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm?dtl/30593.

Narine, Shaun. ASEAN and the Management of Regional Security. Retrieved January 15, 2019. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/ASEAN+and+the+management+of+regional+security.-a021159623

Perwita, A.A. Banyu and Yanyan Mochamad Yani. Pengantar Ilmu Hubungan Internasional. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 2005.

Rose, Gregory and Diana Nestorovska. “ASEAN features towards an ASEAN counter terrorism treaty.” Singapore Year Book of International Law and Contributors (2005).

Schmid, Alex. “Terrorism – The definitional problem.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law Volume 36 Issue 2 (2004).

Sekretariat Nasional ASEAN Indonesia. “Negara Diluar ASEAN Sepakati Penggunaan Our Eyes”. Retrieved 28 Februari 2019. http://setnas-asean.id/news/read/negara-di-luar-asean-sepakati-penggunaan-our-eyes.

Simamora, Parulian. Peluang dan Tantangan Diplomasi Pertahanan. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. 2013.

Sukma, R. “ASEAN and Non Traditional Security”. (2010), Tokyo: CSIS.

Supriyatno, Makmur. Tentang Ilmu Pertahanan. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor, 2014.

Suryadinata, Leo. “Indonesia and its stance on the “Indo-Pacific.” Yusof Ishak Institute Analyse Current Events Issue No. 66 (2018).

United Nations Office of Counter Terrorism, “UN Global Counter Terrorism Strategy“, retrieved October 10, 2019, https://www.un.org/counterterrorism/ctitf/en/un-global-counter-terrorism-strategy.

Yanuar, Ikbar. Metodologi & Teori Hubungan Internasional. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama, 2014.

Wilson, Jeffrey D. “Investing in the economic architecture of the Indo-Pacific.” Indo-Pacific Series (2017).

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.