Kebijakan Respons Indonesia terhadap Problematika Teroris-Kombatan Transnasional Pasca Bom Bali 2002 [Indonesia’s Policy Response to Foreign Terrorist Fighter Problem In Post-2002 Bali Bombings]

Ali Abdullah Wibisono
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Abstract

Indonesia's response to the problem of foreign terrorist fighters has changed from time to time. From the New Order era until the beginning of the reform period, tolerant attitude was applied. However, in the reform era, Indonesia's response changed from a humanitarian-based to prudence-based attitude. This article applies the theoretical mapping of counter-terrorism by David Crelinsten and explains that this change is not only due to perceptions of the potential threat of combatants returning to their homeland, but also the readiness of social reintegration and de-radicalization programs, adherence to international regimes, and domestic political processes. In addition to getting data on the dynamics and number of Indonesian combatants from mass media and journal articles, this article also processes data derived from proceedings of the revision of the anti-terrorism law passed in 2018. Indonesia's attitude towards the current problem of transnational terrorist- combatants is high selectivity, not total rejection or revocation of citizenship. Successful social reintegration for former combatants -- domestic and transnational -- remains a challenge to be addressed ahead.

Abstrak

Respons Indonesia terhadap problematika teroris-kombatan transnasional mengalami perubahan dari masa ke masa. Di era orde baru hingga awal masa reformasi, sikap toleran diterapkan. Sementara itu, di era reformasi respons Indonesia berubah dari sikap humaniter menjadi kehati-hatian. Artikel ini menerapkan pemetaan teoretik kontra-terorisme dari David Crelinsten dan menjelaskan bahwa perubahan ini tak hanya diakibatkan persepsi terhadap potensi ancaman kombatan yang kembali ke tanah air, tapi juga kesiapan program reintegrasi sosial dan deradikalisasi, kepatuhan kepada rezim internasional, dan proses politik domestik. Selain mendapatkan data tentang dinamika dan jumlah kombatan Indonesia dari media massa dan artikel-artikel jurnal, artikel ini juga mengolah data yang berasal dari prosiding revisi undang-undang anti-terorisme yang disahkan tahun 2018. Sikap Indonesia terhadap problematika teroris-kombatan transnasional saat ini adalah selektivitas tinggi, bukan penolakan total atau pencabutan kewarganegaraan. Kurangnya kemampuan untuk melakukan reintegrasi sosial bagi mantan kombatan, domestik maupun transnasional, menandai pekerjaan rumah yang masih tersisa. Penolakan pemerintah untuk memfasilitasi repatriasi tidak berarti penolakan total terhadap kepulangan semua teroris-kombatan transnasional, sehingga kepulangan individual dengan fasilitasi mandiri masih dimungkinkan. Penolakan ini merefleksikan keterbatasan kemampuan pemerintah dan masyarakat untuk merehabilitasi dan mereintegrasikan para teroris-kombatan, ketimbang reaksi terhadap potensi ancaman teroris-kombatan transnasional.

Keywords

Foreign Terrorist Fighter; Counter-Terrorism; International Regimes; Domestic Politics; Teroris Kombatan Transnasional; Kontra-Terorisme; Rezim Internasional; Politik Domestik.

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