Dampak Upah Minimum Terhadap Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja: Studi Kasus Industri Manufaktur Indonesia

Jemila Rahmi, Riyanto Riyanto
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In the last two decades, the manufacturing industry’s contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has decreased from 26.4 percent in 2000 to 21.7 percent in 2019. The sinking productivity of the manufacturing industry causes this decline in performance. Therefore, to increase the manufacturing industry’s performance, productivity must be boosted. One way to improve the manufacturing industry’s productivity is to increase labor productivity it self. According to the wage efficiency theory and production theory, wage is one of the factors that can affect labor productivity. Through the spillover effect mechanism, an increase in the minimum wage will increase workers’ wages. Meanwhile, the increase in workers’ wages will affect labor productivity. This study aims to examine the spillover effect using a syllogistic framework, which examines the effect of an increase in minimum wages on wage increases, and the effect of wages on labor productivity in the manufacturing industry. Using the panel data regression model and BPS large medium industry survey data from 2010 to 2015, this study shows that minimum wages are positively and significantly associated with wages, and positively and significantly associated with labor productivity. These results indicate a spillover effect of an increase in the minimum wage on the increase in workers’ wages, which has implications for labor productivity in the manufacturing industry. Thus, the minimum wage policy can be used as an instrument in boosting labor productivity of the manufacturing industry.

Keywords: minimum wages, spillover effect, manufacturing industry, labor productivity


Dalam dua dekade terakhir, kontribusi industri manufaktur terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) mengalami penurunan dari 26,4 persen pada tahun 2000 menjadi 21,7 persen pada tahun 2019. Penurunan kinerja tersebut disebabkan oleh menurunnya produktivitas industri manufaktur. Agar kontribusinya terhadap PDB dan pertumbuhannya kembali meningkat, maka produktivitas industri manufaktur harus ditingkatkan. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan meningkatkan produktivitas tenaga kerja industri manufaktur itu sendiri. Menurut teori efisiensi upah dan teori produksi, upah merupakan salah satu faktor yang dapat memengaruhi produktivitas tenaga kerja. Melalui mekanisme spillover effect, kenaikan upah minimum akan memengaruhi kenaikan upah pekerja tetap. Sementara kenaikan upah pekerja diduga akan memengaruhi produktivitas tenaga kerja. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji adanya spillover effect tersebut dengan kerangka silogisme yaitu menguji pengaruh kenaikan upah minimum terhadap kenaikan upah, dan menguji pengaruh upah terhadap produktivitas karyawan/pekerja tetap pada industri manufaktur. Dengan menggunakan panel data regression model dan data survei industri besar-sedang BPS dari tahun 2010 sampai dengan tahun 2015, penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa upah minimum berasosiasi positif dan signifikan terhadap upah, dan upah berasosiasi positif dan signifikan terhadap produktivitas tenaga kerja. Hasil ini membuktikan adanya spillover effect kenaikan upah minimum terhadap kenaikan upah pekerja yang berimplikasi pada meningkatnya produktivitas tenaga kerja pada industri manufaktur. Oleh karena itu, kebijakan upah minimum dapat digunakan sebagai instrumen untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tenaga kerja pada industri manufaktur.

Kata kunci: upah minimum, spillover effect, industri manufaktur, produktivitas tenaga kerja


minimum wages; spillover effect; manufacturing industry; labor productivity; upah minimum; industri manufaktur; produktivitas tenaga kerja

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