Pelindungan Hukum terhadap Minuman Alkohol Tradisional Khas Indonesia (Legal Protection towards Indonesian Traditional Alcoholic Beverages)

Cita Yustisia Serfiyani, Iswi Hariyani, Citi Rahmati Serfiyani
| Abstract views: 54 | views: 8

Abstract

Traditional alcoholic beverages have existed in Indonesian culture and society for various purposes. Its existence has been influenced by the concoction of alcoholic beverages which adversely affects the traditional alcoholic beverages’ image. These beverages are actually Intellectual Property Rights, IPR-based products of cultural heritage with indications of origin that have characteristics so that they cannot be compared to other countries’ alcoholic beverages, even though current regulations still regulate the opposite. This paper examines the legal protection of Indonesian traditional alcoholic beverages which are also adapted to their characteristics and the influence of Indonesian legal culture on these traditional alcoholic beverages. This research is a normative study with statutory, conceptual, and comparative approach method with South Korea and France as a comparison. Prudent and objective legal protection from the point of view of IPR for traditional alcoholic beverages is expected to develop positive aspects while still anticipating negative ones. This study concludes that Indonesian traditional alcoholic beverages that fulfill 3 unique characteristics can be protected as intangible cultural heritage (public property) or an indication of origin (belongs to local communities), although what is more appropriate now is an indication of origin so that the Government needs to adjust the regulatory design, especially at the national level, according to the indication of origin.

 

Abstrak

Minuman alkohol tradisional telah ada di budaya masyarakat Indonesia dengan berbagai tujuan peruntukan. Perkembangan eksistensinya dipengaruhi oleh minuman beralkohol racikan yang memberi pengaruh buruk ke citra alkohol tradisional. Minuman alkohol tradisional sesungguhnya merupakan produk berbasis kekayaan intelektual di bidang warisan budaya dan indikasi asal yang memiliki karakteristik sehingga tidak dapat disamakan dengan minuman beralkohol lainnya, meskipun regulasi yang ada saat ini masih mengatur sebaliknya. Tulisan ini meneliti mengenai pelindungan hukum minuman alkohol tradisional khas Indonesia yang disesuaikan pula dengan karakteristiknya dan pengaruh budaya hukum masyarakat Indonesia terhadap minuman alkohol tradisional tersebut. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian normatif dengan metode pendekatan perundang-undangan, pendekatan konseptual, serta pendekatan perbandingan dengan Korea Selatan dan Prancis. Pelindungan hukum yang bijak dan objektif dari sudut pandang Hak atas Kekayaan Intelektual (HKI) terhadap minuman alkohol tradisional diharapkan dapat mengembangkan aspek positif dengan tetap mengantisipasi aspek negatifnya. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa minuman alkohol tradisional khas Indonesia yang memenuhi 3 karakteristik khusus dapat dilindungi sebagai warisan budaya tak benda (milik publik) ataupun indikasi asal (milik masyarakat lokal) walaupun yang lebih tepat untuk diterapkan saat ini adalah indikasi asal sehingga Pemerintah perlu menyesuaikan perancangan regulasi di tingkat pusat sesuai indikasi asal.

Keywords

minuman alkohol tradisional; warisan budaya; indikasi asal; traditional alcohol beverages; cultural heritage; indication of origin

Full Text:

PDF

References

Jurnal

Anggraeni, Nita. “Perlindungan Terhadap Indikasi Geografis (Produk yang disertai Nama Tempat) dalam Kerangka Hukum Nasional dan Hukum Internasional”. Jurnal Mazahib Pemikiran Hukum Islam. Vol. 12. No. 2. Desember 2013.

Cahyadi, Antonius. “Hukum Rakyat ala Frederich Karl Von Savigny”. Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan. Vol. 35. No. 4. 2005.

Choi, Jay Pil et al. “Local Identity and Persistent Leadership in Market Share Dynamics: Evidence from Deregulation in the Korean Soju Industry”. Korean Economic Review.Vol. 29. No. 2. 2013.

Djaja, Hendra. “Perlindungan Indikasi Geografis Pada Produk Lokal dalam Sistem Perdagangan Internasional”. Jurnal Cakrawala Hukum. Vol. 18. No. 2. Desember 2013.

Ho, Kim In et. al. “Comparison of Fermentation Characteristics of Korean Traditional Alcoholic Beverages Prepared by Different Brewing Methods and Their Quality Changes after Aging”. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture. Vol. 11. Issue 4. 1996.

Irawan, Candra. “Protection of Traditional Knowledge: A Perspective on Intellectual Property Law in Indonesia”. Journal of World Intellectual Property Right. John Wiley and Son Ltd. Vol. 20. Issue 1-2. March 2017.

Isnani. “Identifikasi dan Pemanfaatan Indikasi Geografis dan Indikasi Asal Melalui Program Pembinaan Pada Masyarakat”. Jurnal Pengabdian Hukum Indonesia. Vol. 2. No. 1. 2019.

Jawardi. “Strategi Pengembangan Budaya Hukum”. Jurnal Penelitian Hukum De Jure. Vol. 16. No. 1. 2016.

Lestari, Tri Rini Puji, “Menyoal Pengaturan Konsumsi Minuman Beralkohol di Indonesia”. Jurnal Aspirasi. Vol. 7. No. 2. 2016.

Lombon, Kevin A. “Permasalahan dan Segi Hukum tentang Alkoholisme di Indonesia”. Lex Crimen. Vol. III. No. 1. 2014.

Profeta, Adriano et. al. “Protected Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin: An Overview of the Status Quo and the Development of the Use of Regulation (EC) 510/06 in Europe, With Special Consideration of the German Situation”. Journal of International Food and Agribusiness Marketing. Vol. 22. Issue 1-2. 2010.

Retnaningtyas, Aprilia Yasinta, et. al. “Studi Awal Proses Fermentasi pada Desain Pabrik Bioethanol dari Molasses”. Jurnal Teknik ITS. Vol. 6. No. 1. 2017.

Santi, Shinta Soraya. “Pembuatan Alkohol dengan Proses Fermentasi Buah Jambu Mete oleh Khamir Sacharomices Cerevesiae”. Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Teknik. Vol. 8. No. 2. 2008.

Trimarchi, Michele. “Regulation, Integration and Sustainability in the Cultural Sector”. International Journal of Heritage Studies. Vol. 10. Issue 5. 2004.

Yessiningrum, Winda Risna. “Perlindungan Hukum Indikasi Geografis sebagai Bagian dari Hak Kekayaan Intelektual”. Jurnal IUS Kajian Hukum dan Keadilan. Vol. 3. No. 1. 2015.

Buku

Badan Litbang Pertanian Kementerian Pertanian. Pembangunan Pertanian Wilayah Berbasis Kearifan Lokal dan Kemitraan. Jakarta : IAARD Press. 2017.

Demossier, Marion. Wine Drinking Culture in France : A National Myth or a Modern Passion ?. Wales : University of Wales Press. 2010.

Friedman, Lawrence M. The Legal System : A Social Science Perspective. New York : Russell Sage Foundation. 1975.

Hadjon, Philipus M. Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Rakyat di Indonesia. Surabaya : Bina Ilmu, 1987.

Hoffman, Barbara T. Art and Cultural Heritage: Law Policy and Practice. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Larson, Jorge. Relevance of Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin for the Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources. Rome : Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species, 2007.

Saptomo, Ade. Budaya Hukum & Kearifan Lokal. Jakarta : FHUP Press, 2019.

Thuriot, Fabrice. Effects of fthe World Heritage Label in Champagne Region. Springer Publisher: Wine Tourism Destination Management and Marketing: Theory and Cases. 2019.

Tudor, Daniel. Korea, The Impossible Country. Vermont : Tuttle Publishing, 2012.

Vaz, Teresa de Noronha, Peter Nijkamp. Traditional Food Production and Rural Sustainable Development : A European Challenge (1st edition). London : Routledge Publisher. 2009.

Prosiding

Gopikhrisna, Despande, et. al. “Overview of Continuous Alcohol Fermentation and Multipressure Distillation Technology”. Proceeding South African Sugar Technology Association 76th. 2002.

Hong, Sungtak, Jinhwa Chung. “Product Variety as a Barrier to Entry : Evidence from the Post-Deregulation Korean Soju Market”. Prosiding. 2017. SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3497496. diakses tanggal 17 Mei 2020.

Irawan, Candra. “Pendaftaran Indikasi Geografis sebagai Instrumen Perlindungan Hukum dan Peningkatan Daya Saing Produk Daerah di Indonesia”. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Multi Disiplin Ilmu UNISBANK Ke-3. 2017.

Taqyuddin. “Tradition of Drinking Arak”. Proceeding The 7th International Symposium of Jurnal Antropologi Universitas Indonesia. 2019.

Makalah

Calboli, Irene. “Geographical Indications between Trade, Development, Culture, and Marketing: Framing a Fair(er) System of Protection in the Global Economy?”. Faculty of Law Texas A&M University. 2017. https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/ facscholar/919. diakses tanggal 21 Mei 2020.

Copyright (c) 2020 Negara Hukum: Membangun Hukum untuk Keadilan dan Kesejahteraan
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 2614-2813

Hosted by Mason Publishing, part of the George Mason University Libraries.