ANALISIS DAYA SAING KOMODITAS PERTANIAN DAN BAHAN PANGAN INDONESIA DI PASAR KAMBOJA, LAOS, MYANMAR, DAN VIETNAM (COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN AGRI-FOOD PRODUCTS IN THE CAMBODIA, LAOS, MYANMAR, AND VIETNAM MARKET)

Iwan Hermawan
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Abstract

The improvements of Cambodians, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam (CLMV) economic have opened opportunities for expanding Indonesian non-oil and gas export market. However, the development of agri-food production is still faced with the issue of economies of scale limited, reduction of government intervention, and climate change risks. Responding to this condition, the purpose is to analyze the competitive advantages and disadvantages of Indonesia’s agri-food products on CLMV market through trading activities. Relative Trade Advantage (RTA) index approach is applied to assess the competitiveness. Required secondary data provided by Comtrade, World Integrated Trade Solution, International Monetary Fund, National Bureau of Statistics, Bank Indonesia, Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board, and Ministry of Agriculture. While the analysis period covers time series data from year 2001-2016. The subject of trade commodities based on international nomenclature for the classification of products Harmonized Sections (HS) 2012 in two digits. Agricultural products belong in HS 01-24, which for agricultural commodities is in HS 01-15 and foodstuffs is in HS 16-24. The results revealed that export of Indonesia’s agri-food products on CLMV market grew higher during 2001-2016 period compared to imports. Through RTA index, it is known that most of Indonesia’s agri-food products have the revealed trade advantages while others do not have revealed trade advantages on CLMV market. CLMV’s huge market potential remains wide open and this should be able
to be utilized by improving its competitiveness of agri-food products, determining which agri-food products to prioritize developed.

Abstrak

Perubahan positif dari ekonomi negara Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, dan Vietnam (CLMV) membuka peluang bagi Indonesia untuk memperluas pasar ekspor nonmigasnya. Namun perkembangan produksi komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan justru masih dihadapkan pada isu skala ekonomi usaha terbatas, penurunan bantuan pemerintah hingga risiko perubahan iklim. Resultan kondisi ini akan memengaruhi daya saing komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan Indonesia di pasar CLMV. Untuk itu, tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan Indonesia di pasar CLMV melalui aktivitas perdagangan. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan indeks Relative Trade Advantage (RTA). Sedangkan data sekunder bersumber dari Comtrade, World Integrated Trade Solution, International Monetary Fund, Badan Pusat Statistik, Bank Indonesia, Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal, dan Kementerian Pertanian. Periode analisis data mencakup rentang tahun 2001-2016 dengan pertimbangan tertentu. Subjek komoditas perdagangan yang dianalisis menggunakan Harmonized Sections (HS) tahun 2012 dua digit, yaitu HS 01-24 sebagai kelompok komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan. Secara umum hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ekspor komoditas pangan dan bahan pangan Indonesia di pasar CLMV tumbuh lebih tinggi selama periode tahun 2001-2016 jika dibandingkan dengan pertumbuhan impornya. Lebih lanjut dari hasil perhitungan dengan menggunakan indeks RTA memberikan gambaran di mana sebagian besar dari komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan Indonesia di pasar CLMV memiliki keunggulan perdagangan dan sebagian lainnya tidak memiliki keunggulan tersebut. Potensi pasar CLMV yang besar harus dapat dimanfaatkan oleh Indonesia dengan meningkatkan daya saing komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan, termasuk menentukan komoditas pertanian dan bahan pangan yang menjadi prioritasnya.

Keywords

agri-food products: CLMV: competitiveness: RTA index; komoditas pertanian; bahan pangan; daya saing; indeks RTA

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