Analisis Kesenjangan Upah Antargender di Kawasan Timur Indonesia pada Masa Sebelum dan Saat Pandemi

Roby Nasution, Aisyah Fitri Yuniasih

Abstract

 The wage gap between genders is still a serious problem faced by all countries in the world, including Indonesia. To overcome the gender gap, the government is still pursuing various programs to achieve the 5th SDG’s goal, namely gender equality. It was recorded that in 2020, according to BPS, 12 of the 17 provinces included in Eastern Indonesia (KTI) had a gender development index (IPG) that was below the national IPG. Therefore, this study will analyze the gender wage gap in KTI before and during the Covid-19 pandemic by analyzing Sakernas August 2019– 2021 data using the blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. The blinder-Oaxaca decomposition results show that female workers received 36.86 percent lower wages before the pandemic than men. During the pandemic in 2020, there was a decrease in the wage gap by 5.34 percent compared to 2019 to 31.52 percent and stagnant in 2021 with a wage gap of 31.21 percent. The factor explained can only explain 7–13 percent of the total gender wage gap in KTI. The remaining 86–92 percent of the wage gap in KTI is caused by discrimination (unexplained factors). Therefore, Commission IX needs to improve law enforcement related to gender equality in the field of employment. Not only punishing the perpetrators of acts of discrimination but also guaranteeing employment to workers who experience discrimination. Socialization must also be given so that workers understand the existence of laws that guarantee employment for workers who experience discrimination so that awareness of the right to gender equality in work increases, especially for female workers

 

Abstrak

Kesenjangan upah antargender sampai saat ini masih menjadi masalah serius yang harus dihadapi seluruh negara di dunia, tidak terkecuali Indonesia. Untuk mengatasi kesenjangan antargender tersebut pemerintah masih terus mengupayakan berbagai program demi tercapainya tujuan Sustainable Development Goals yang ke5, yaitu kesetaraan gender. Tercatat pada tahun 2020 menurut BPS terdapat 12 dari 17 provinsi di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI) memiliki indeks pembangunan gender (IPG) berada di bawah IPG nasional. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini fokus menganalisis kesenjangan upah antargender di Kawasan Timur Indonesia sebelum dan saat pandemi Covid-19 dengan menggunakan metode dekomposisi Blinder-Oaxaca terhadap data Survei Angkatan Kerja Nasional (Sakernas) Agustus 2019–2021. Hasil dekomposisi Blinder-Oaxaca menunjukkan bahwa sebelum pandemi Covid-19 tahun 2019, pekerja perempuan menerima upah 36,86 persen lebih rendah dibandingkan laki-laki. Saat pandemi Covid-19 tahun 2020, terjadi penurunan kesenjangan upah sebesar 5,34 persen dibandingkan tahun 2019 menjadi 31,52 persen dan stagnan pada tahun 2021 dengan kesenjangan upah sebesar 31,21 persen. Faktor explained hanya mampu menjelaskan sebesar 7–13 persen dari total kesenjangan upah antargender yang ada di Kawasan Timur Indonesia. Sisanya sekitar 86–92 persen kesenjangan upah di Kawasan Timur Indonesia disebabkan oleh diskriminasi (unexplained factors). Oleh karena itu, Komisi IX perlu meningkatkan pengawasan penegakan hukum yang berkaitan dengan kesetaraan gender di bidang ketenagakerjaan. Sosialisasi juga harus diberikan agar para pekerja paham akan adanya hukum yang menjamin pekerjaan kepada para pekerja yang mengalami diskriminasi sehingga kesadaran atas hak kesetaraan gender dalam pekerjaan meningkat terutama bagi para pekerja perempuan.

Keywords

blinder-Oaxaca; gap; pandemic Covid-19; wage; workers

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.46807/aspirasi.v13i2.3272

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